Contested meanings of peace, conflict and violence
There are many differences between 'war studies' and 'peace studies' and the role of peace studies departments and war studies departments is quite different.
UWC Atlantic had to negotiate with the British government to have permission to teach peace studies as it was seen as a security threat. Even by 1980 "the terms 'Peace Studies' or 'Peace Education' were scarcely to be heard in Britain. Only one school had a fully-fledged syllabus- and that was the International Atlantic College".
Heater, D. (1984). Peace Through Education (Routledge Revivals): The Contribution of the Council for Education in World Citizenship (1st ed.). Routledge.
The Peace and conflict studies course at Atlantic College later became an IB SL school-based syllabus which was then evolved into the current IB Global politics course.
4.1.1 Defining Peace, Conflict and Violence
Introducing Professor Johan Galtung the 'Father of Peace Studies'
A list of basic human needs- extract from Galtung, 1980
Galtung, Johan. "Theories of conflict." Definitions, dimensions, negations, formations. Oslo: Transcend (2009).
4.1.2 Typologies of violence
After WWII, psychologists and sociologists were particularly concerned with explaining why human beings could be so extremely violent towards others. In other words, they developed theories of aggression. Many of the experiments they conducted would not be allowed today, for example, Milgram's obedience experiment.
4.1.3 Competing interpretations of 'peace' and (mis)conceptions of conflict
Discuss the view that peace is more than simply the absence of war.
4.1.4 Types of Conflict
4.1.6 Trends in Conflict
4.1.7 Just war theory
Case study: Iraq War, 2003-2011
Group A read article 1. Group B read article 2. Discuss and make notes. You have 5 minutes.
In pairs, you have 90 seconds each to argue your article's perspective. Person A must argue for article 1, person B must argue for article 2.
You now have 4 minutes to reach an agreement, which perspective do you find most convincing?
Supplement any holes in your knowledge with the reading below from the Council of Foreign Relations.
4.1.7 International Law
“The use of violence can never be legitimate.” Discuss the validity of this claim.
Discuss whether just war theory is a valid justification for military intervention using one conflict you have studied.