Evolution of conflict

4.3.1 How can conflicts evolve over time?

Case Study: The Rohingya Crisis, Myanamar

4.3.1 Rohingya


L15 Myanmar Task 1


L15 Myanmar Task 2


HIIK ConflictBarometer_2015 Rohingya.pdf

HIIK 2015

HIIK ConflictBarometer_2016 Rohingya.pdf

HIIK 2016


HIIK 2017

Myanmar Test


4.3.2 Non-violent Protest

Personal Question

Can it ever be justified for a group other than the state to use or encourage violence in a country?

Read the articles and watch the prompt videos.

Remember: the US civil rights movement is not within your lifetime but it can still help inform us and explain our understandings of violence and non-violence today.

Article 1: BBC Ethics

"Nonviolence is fine as long as it works," Malcolm X

Case Study: Hong Kong Nationalist Protests

Personal Question

Which of the 198 methods of nonviolent action have you already participated in before attending/ whilst at UWC?

4.3.3 Terrorism

4.3.2 Terrorism


4.3.2 Terrorism in Global Politics


4.3.2 AR-Terrorism Definitions-BORUNDA.pdf


Essay question:

Can terrorism ever be defeated with the use of direct violence? (25 marks)


Mark the example essay using the IB criteria.

Complete an essay feedback sheet.

GloPo Essay Feedback Template /25m

Feedback Sheet

Terrorism Essay Example


4.3.4 The Arms Trade

Case Study: Rwanda (we will return to this in the Human Rights unit )

The Arms Trade in Africa.pdf

Arms in Rwanda

4.3.4 Rwanda and the Arms Trade



  • Should there be controls on arms sales to countries that are known to be committing war crimes?

4.3.5 Sanctions and Arms Embargoes


Use the Reading and Video to answer the following questions in preparation for our next lesson:

  • What options do states have to curtail the actions of other states?

  • How successful can sanctions be in deterring states from policies that the international community disagree with?

  • How can economic sanctions be seen as evidence of United States hegemony?



You will be given one of the six articles to take home.

In next class you will have to represent the perspective of your reading in a debate.

If you need access to the edition of the magazine or audio version please email me.

Level 6+ question: How do the different IR theories perceive the threat of nuclear weapons?

Debate question: Do nuclear weapons matter?

Case Study: Iran Nuclear Deal

4.3.5 Sanctions and Arms Embargoes


Extension Film

A critically acclaimed documentary which investigates cyberwarfare against Iran. We are not specifically studying cyberwar this unit although it may be something you choose to investigate further.

4.3.6 Private Military Contractors


Watch the documentary and complete the questions in preparation for class debate about the role of private military contractors.

The US led wars in Iraq and Afghanistan were not the first instances of PMCs however they did mark a turning point in the growth of the industry and the military to PMC pipeline for recent verterns.


4.3.6 The Role of Private Security Contractors in Conflict


Personal Question

At the start of the war in Ukraine in 2022, President Zelensky encouraged foreigners to travel to Ukraine to fight alongside them.

Do you think a country should allow its citizens to fight in a conflict that the country is not a part of? What are the political implications?

Essay questions:

Tip: a lot of the paper 2 questions for the P&C unit (4) will refer to evolution of conflict (4.3) and the resolution of conflict (4.4) BUT to answer the questions well, you will need to incorporate learning from sections 4.1 and 4.2.

Discuss why non-violent protest is sometimes able to achieve success against even the most powerful of opponents.

“The use of violence can never be legitimate.” Discuss the validity of this claim, with reference to at least one violent conflict you have studied.

Evaluate the claim that strategic alliances greatly reduce the likelihood of violent conflict between states.

End of Section 4.3